Among the various symptoms of PCOS, acne and oily skin can present a real problem. PCOS is a condition that causes abnormal growths in the ovaries in the forms of cysts, thereby disrupting a woman’s menstrual cycle.
PCOS is also a common cause of infertility in women, presenting a real problem when trying to conceive. When it comes to acne, this is a common symptom among affected women, and it is important to learn the relationship between the two.
What is Acne?
Acne is a trapped skin pore due to excessive oil, skin cells or bacteria. They usually occur in the face, even though any part of the human body can get full of acne. Acne often occurs in the neck, chest or on a human’s back.
Different types of acne can develop, such as:
• Blackheads – in dermatology are classified as comedones. Blackheads develop when oil and bacteria trapped within the pores rise to the top of them. The skin pores are only partially blocked. As these pores are open, the oil and bacteria are in contact with the air and skin melanin, from where they get their black color.
• Whiteheads – develop in the skin when the oil, sebum, bacteria or dead skin cells completely block the skin pores.
• Papules – are just the same as whiteheads, but only more painful due to the fact that they are inflamed. They often tend to be red, with a white or yellow head, small or medium in size.
• Pustules – are just the same as papules, only that due to the inflammation of the skin pore, pus is collected. They are usually larger in size and have a yellowish color due to the collection of pus.
• Nodules and cysts – are a severe form of acne. They are red, inflamed and large in size, lasting for weeks and sometimes even months. Nodules and cysts can cause severe and permanent damage to the skin including acne scars or skin discolorations if they are not treated on time.
The relationship between acne and PCOS
Women with PCOS will often have acne, particularly on the lower third of the face. This leads doctors to believe that the cause of the acne is due to a hormonal imbalance since the lower third of the face is more sensitive to hormones. For example, this is the area where beards grow in men, which is stimulated by hormones. The rest of the face is not as sensitive to hormones.
Although we don’t know exactly what causes PCOS, it is widely believed that the condition develops from an insulin resistance. Since insulin is responsible for triggering other hormones in the body, in this case, androgens, PCOS causes a hormonal imbalance. This imbalance is what causes acne to develop thereafter.
Differences in acne caused by PCOS
The first sign that acne may be a result of PCOS is the age of the woman. We all develop acne during adolescence, but if they continue to persist past the age of 25, then its possible PCOS may be involved. The acne will also flare up in the days leading up to the menstrual period more than the weeks before.
This symptom indicates a hormonal cause, and this also signals PCOS as the cause of the acne. Acne due to PCOS will also present differently, with more tender knots beneath the skin rather than the usual surface bumps. These knots may also cause skin lesions, which would set the symptoms apart from regular acne.
Women with PCOS will also often have diabetes since they are both conditions arising from insulin problems. To be clear, not all acne experienced by diabetic women means that it is caused by PCOS. It is worth checking out in case the woman had never been diagnosed with this condition in the past.
Management and treatment of acne caused by PCOS
For acne caused by PCOS, using regular face creams and gels will not be very effective as it would be treating the symptom. To treat the cause of the symptoms, you will need to address the hormonal imbalance, and this requires hormone therapy. The simplest and effective hormone replacement therapy can be done through the use of birth control pills.
These pills will have estrogen and progesterone hormones, which will help to substitute the decreased levels of these hormones in the body. For this therapy to work, it may take up to 3 months before the acne goes away, and even 6 months in some women. The alternative is spironolactone, which blocks the production of testosterone hormone thereby reducing the symptoms of PCOS including acne.
It is a much more effective treatment compared to birth control pills. It will often be recommended for women who may be at risk of undesirable side-effects from the birth control pills.
If your child is shortly due to get their braces removed then they probably can’t wait for this day to arrive. After months of treatment, they will get to see their newly straightened smile for the very first time. However, this isn’t the end of their orthodontic treatment as once braces are removed it will be necessary for your child to wear their retainers. These can be removable or fixed dental appliances.
Your Teeth Are Constantly on the Move
It’s easy to imagine that once teeth are straightened then they will stay firmly in place. In fact, if teeth have the ability to move for orthodontic treatment, then they can continue moving after it is finished. It might be hard to imagine, but your teeth are moving very slightly all the time. Whenever you bite down or chew, then this results in tiny tooth movements.
The reason why teeth are able to move is because they are attached to the jawbone by what are called periodontal ligaments. These ligaments are stretchy, allowing for very slight tooth movements. The bone surrounding teeth is called alveolar bone and it’s actually quite fragile. Bones are living tissues, and your alveolar bone is constantly renewing and reshaping itself in response to the forces it receives.
How Orthodontics Braces Help Remodel Your Periodontal Ligaments and Bone
Orthodontic treatment is planned to apply extremely precise and highly controlled forces to teeth. Moving them in the correct directions so they become straighter and more evenly spaced. These forces place pressure on the periodontal ligaments and on the bone surrounding teeth.
The ligaments begin to stretch and the bone will remodel itself. For example, bone cells on one side of the teeth will be absorbed due to the pressure. On the other side news bone cells will be created, so the shape of the jawbone will actually change slightly.
How Does a Retainer Help Prevent Tooth Movements?
It takes time for the periodontal ligaments to become accustomed to their new shape. If they aren’t fully remodeled then the ligaments can attempt to go back to their original shape and position. If this occurs, the teeth will be pulled out of their new positions, back into their original arrangement, undoing all the hard work of orthodontic treatment. This is called an orthodontic relapse, and the chances of this occurring are particularly high within the first few months after braces are removed.
At this point, the new bone surrounding teeth is relatively soft and it needs time to settle and harden. After the first few months the risk declines but it never completely goes away, which is why retainers are a necessary part of treatment. By wearing a retainer, your child can continue to enjoy all the benefits of orthodontic treatment as their retainer will hold the teeth in their new and improved alignment.
Quite often they may recommend a child has a non-removable or fixed retainer. This can initially come as a bit of a shock, as it’s easy to imagine this retainer will be highly visible and will require lots of maintenance just like a fixed brace. This isn’t the case, as a bonded retainer will consist of a very thin piece of wire that is firmly attached to the back or inside surfaces of their teeth.
The retainer is bonded in place with dental composite and can only be removed by your dentist. It cannot be seen whenever your child smiles, although they will be able to feel it with their tongue. Once they get used to it being there, it’s likely your child will forget about it.
One major advantage of having a fixed retainer is that compliance will never be an issue and it will not make any difference to the appearance of their teeth. One disadvantage of having a fixed retainer is daily oral hygiene, as it will be much more difficult for your child to floss properly when they have a bonded retainer.
There are many different types of removable retainers and quite often it may be possible to use what looks like a clear plastic tooth whitening tray. This fits tightly but comfortably over the teeth, preventing tooth movements. However, if your child has a removable retainer it’s vital they understand the importance of compliance.
With this type of retainer, it’s still highly possible that our orthodontist will recommend wearing it all the time, only removing it for eating and for brushing and flossing. After the first year or so they may only need to wear it at night and from then on more occasionally as the years pass by. Failure to wear a retainer as directed could well result in an orthodontic relapse.
So, at some point down the line, your child may need further orthodontic treatment to reposition their teeth. If your child is due to finish orthodontic treatment quite shortly, it’s best to get their orthodontist to sit down and explain all possible options and the disadvantages and advantages of each choice. This will hopefully allow your child to make an informed decision about their own treatment.
After all, they will be responsible for making sure they wear their retainer as recommended and that they brush and floss thoroughly. Even if they decide to go for a fixed retainer initially, they can always choose to have it removed at a later date and to continue keeping their teeth in place with a removable retainer. Any child who is about to begin orthodontic treatment shouldn’t be put off by the idea of wearing retainers after their braces are removed.
Retainers are really discreet and do an excellent job of holding teeth in the right positions. Orthodontics can do amazing things in helping to improve a child’s smile and retainers simply ensure they can enjoy the results for life. If you think your child might benefit from orthodontic treatment, it’s well worth booking a consultation with an orthodontic.
If our pediatric dentist thinks treatment may help, they can arrange for you to see our orthodontist. Even if your child is still pretty young, there may be quite a bit we can do as a kid may benefit from an early orthodontic evaluation as soon as age 6 or seven.
The muscles of the neck need to work properly in order for us to be able to move the head in all directions without a problem. If for any reason, the muscles of the neck are not working properly, a decreased range of motion of the neck occurs. This is commonly known as torticollis. Torticollis is a condition whereby the muscles of the neck become locked in an awkward position.
This causes the head to be cocked and locked to one side and the jaw to the opposite side. It then becomes painful to return the head to its original position, so the head is determined to stay in that position. The muscle being mainly affected is the sternocleidomastoid muscle. This muscle runs along the side and the back of the neck.
The condition is most common among children, but it can also develop in adults who showed no symptoms while in their childhood. This is torticollis in adults and is also referred to as cervical dystonia or spasmodic torticollis.
What are the causes of torticollis in adults?
The exact cause of torticollis in adults is not always known – sometimes, it can develop suddenly after an injury to the neck muscles or the nervous system, but this isn’t always the case. Most of the time, the signs and symptoms of this condition start to show during infancy and continue up until adulthood. For this reason, experts believe it may develop in the womb if the head of the fetus was awkwardly positioned.
In cases where torticollis develops in adulthood, yet, there were no symptoms during childhood, then the probable cause would be trauma to the neck area. Trauma to the neck muscles may cause inflammation, just like it would any other muscle in the body. However, if the condition persisted for weeks after the trauma event, then this might indicate damage to the nervous system. Thus, it may have caused torticollis to develop.
There have also been studies that have shown a genetic link in the development of torticollis. Patients affected by the condition are often related to others who also suffered from the same condition. Infections of the neck or head can cause torticollis too. As the infection spreads to the lymph nodes of the neck, the overlying muscles will get contracted.
Torticollis in adulthood can therefore occur due to an infection or abscess of the throat or upper airway. Sinus infections, mastoiditis, jaw infections, tooth infections or ear infections can similarly be the lead cause to torticollis.
Certain medications can cause torticollis. These medications are ketamine, amphetamines, cocaine, Haldol, Compazine, etc. Rarely, torticollis in adults is caused by a tumor of the neck, scar tissue, vascular problems or even arthritis.
Signs and symptoms of torticollis in adults
• The head tilts to one side while the chin tilts to the other. The individual has to maintain this awkward position because trying to move the head back causes pain
• The shoulders are not at equal levels, with one being raised over the other
• The neck muscles become swollen due to extensive straining which leads to inflammation
• The lymph nodes may also become infected, causing them to swell and become tender to the touch
• Headaches and head tremors due to maintaining this awkward position for extended periods of time
Treatment of torticollis in adults
Unfortunately, there is no cure for torticollis in adults or children, and individuals with the condition have to learn to live with it. If discovered early, simple management techniques such as stretching exercises, massage, and heat application can be practiced during physical therapy. Neck braces, too, may be recommended to help the strained muscles recover quickly from their locked position.
To address the pain associated with torticollis, various pain medications in the form of tablets and ointments may be prescribed. Muscle relaxants may also be used to help ease the tension of the neck muscles. Botox injections can also help to reduce the effect of torticollis by immobilizing the affected muscles.
You will need to have a Botox injection every 3 to 4 months, as the effect subsides gradually. In the worst cases where the individual experiences debilitating pain or recurrent episodes of torticollis, then surgery may be performed to fix the problem. The surgery may be done to either increase the length of the neck muscles or to interrupt nerves responsible for the condition.
As mentioned, torticollis has no cure. You will just need to learn how to live with it. Avoiding stress is important when it comes to torticollis. Stress, anxiety and nervousness will make your torticollis get worse. Heating packs can also be used and applied to the neck in order to relieve the muscle spasms and make the torticollis a little better.
In cases of an acute torticollis, in general, there is nothing to worry about. In most of the cases, the acute torticollis will go away within a few weeks. However, sometimes, it takes months or even years for torticollis and neck pain to go away.
Laser hair removal is the new big thing when it comes to getting unwanted hair removed from your body. At times it is just for cosmetic reasons, but there are cases where laser hair removal is completely necessary. Laser hair removal helps to get rid of all of that unwanted hair that you have without having to shave or wax any longer.
This procedure is generally done on the arms, legs, back, chest, bikini area, and sometimes the facial area. The process can take a few treatments before you begin to see results because every person is different.
Necessary Cases for Hair Removal
There are plenty of cases where laser hair removal is completely necessary. If you have excessive hair, it can sometimes get in the way of your day to day activities. Excessive hair can also be incredibly embarrassing to people. Just think of how you would feel being a teenage girl with a beard?
This kind of thing happens all of the time due to hormone imbalances, changes in the body during puberty, diabetes, some cancers, and thyroid issues. Once you have decided on getting necessary laser hair removal, there are plenty of things that you should know in order to better prepare yourself.
Getting Yourself Ready for Laser Hair Removal
Many people do not know all there is to know about laser hair removal. For instance, women who have severe hormone problems are less likely to have the results that they expect. There are also a few medications that can cause laser hair removal not to work. It is very important to talk to your doctor about this before you have the procedure done.
You will have to go to a consultation in order to be sure that it is completely necessary for you to have laser hair removal done. When you have your consultation, they will give you a test on your skin to be completely sure that you are a good candidate for this procedure. Another important thing to keep in mind about laser hair removal is keeping realistic expectations for the procedure.
Not only will you have to wait for quite some time before you can see the results but you may also have to undergo multiple sessions before you can actually see some results. So, the thing you would need is patience!
The heart is made up of four chambers, with the lower 2 chambers referred to as the ventricles and the upper two as the atria. The atria or the upper 2 chambers are responsible for receiving blood into the heart and directing it to the ventricles. It then pumps the blood out through the arteries to various parts of the body. Each half of the heart, divided vertically will, therefore, have one ventricle and one atrium.
When thinking about the heart, the left and right sides are named from a first-person perspective. This means that the right ventricle and atrium are the ones on my right - hand side. The right side of the heart is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood. The right atrium receives blood first, directs it to the right ventricle which pumps the blood to the lungs.
When this blood returns from the lungs, it enters the left atrium to the left ventricle which then pumps blood to the entire body.
As you can already tell, the left ventricle does a lot more work than the right ventricle. The left-side pumps blood to the entire body and the right ventricle only pumps blood to the lungs. For this reason, the left ventricle not only consists of thicker muscles but also receives the most attention from doctors and cardiac diseases.
When is the right ventricle considered to have failed?
Nevertheless, the right ventricle can still experience failure, just like its left counterpart. The right ventricle is considered to be in failure if it does not perform its function properly. Normally, the right ventricle is smaller in volume compared to the left ventricle.
When the opposite is identified through an angiogram, this is considered as the right ventricular failure. It occurs when the right ventricle can’t pump up blood effectively to the lungs, so it becomes enlarged, and its muscles thicken to cover the deficit in pressure.
Causes of right ventricular failure
Pulmonary heart disease
This is a condition whereby the right ventricle becomes enlarged and its muscles thickened to adequately pump blood to the lungs. This is caused when there is increased pressure in the lungs that prevents blood from flowing smoothly through the lungs.
The increased pressure in the lungs could be due to a pulmonary disease like a lung disease, sarcoidosis, sickle cell anemia or blood clots in the lungs. To counter this increased pressure, the right ventricle has to become larger and its muscles thicker, to ensure that the blood is pumped at the required pressure.
Although heart failure often affects the left ventricle, its effects can reach the right ventricle too. When the left ventricle is unable to keep up with the right ventricle’s blood flow, it begins to cause increased pressure in the pulmonary vein. This subsequently causes increased pressure in the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle.
When blood stops flowing into the right ventricle, perhaps due to blood clots in the veins, the muscles of the right ventricle will be destroyed. That means they can’t function properly, thus, leading to a right ventricular failure.
Signs and symptoms of right ventricular failure
Common sign and symptoms of right ventricular failure include:
• Shortness of breath,
• Irregular heartbeat,
• Heart palpitation,
• Pronounced veins of the neck,
• Swelling of the feet and ankles,
• Frequent urination at night, etc.
How is right ventricular failure treated?
Heart failure requires constant monitoring and examinations from your health care provider. After developing heart failure, constant and repeated hospitalizations are necessary. The goal of the treatment is to control the signs and symptoms, reduce the heart’s workload and improve the heart’s ability to function normally. The treatment is also focused on maintaining and keeping under control any underlying disorder that has led to a right ventricular failure in the first place.
In cases of abnormal ECG and rhythm problems, a biventricular pacemaker is necessary. Other patients benefit from valve replacement surgeries or bypass surgeries. Medications commonly used for the treatment of right ventricular failure include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, beta – blockers, digitalis, etc. In cases of severe heart failure, the only solution is a heart transplant.
Complications of right ventricular failure
Possible complications include:
• Abnormal heart rhythms, which can be even life – threatening,
• Repeated hospitalizations,
• Cardiac arrest,
• Sudden death.
Outlook for right ventricular failure
Heart failure is a serious medical condition which requires immediate medical help and hospitalization. There is no cure for heart failure. However, many forms of heart failure can be successfully maintained, kept under control with various medications.
If the underlying condition that has led to the right ventricular failure in the first place is kept under control, the heart failure will also be successfully maintained and under control.
Who doesn’t want their smile to look its best, especially as there is an ever increasing emphasis on having cosmetically perfect teeth? While this might be fine for celebrities and film stars with hefty bank balances, can it still be viable for ordinary mortals? The answer is definitely yes, and many people are pleasantly surprised at the affordability of cosmetic dental treatments.
Especially, as it can also benefit dental health. Of course, some treatments are more expensive, particularly if you wish to replace missing teeth with the very latest dental implants. Even with these procedures, it’s worth considering the potential benefits for your dental health.
So, what is cosmetic dentistry?
Explaining Cosmetic Dentistry
Cosmetic dentistry covers a wide variety of treatments that can help to improve the overall appearance of your teeth. One of the most well-known treatments is professional teeth whitening.
This is also one of the few treatments alongside porcelain veneers that is purely cosmetic. Furthermore, it will not have any benefit for your dental health.
Other treatments can help to preserve or protect your teeth, or can be used to straighten up badly misaligned teeth, or to replace them completely.
These include treatments to repair teeth damaged by trauma or decay. Methods include such as dental bonding, tooth colored fillings, as well as inlays and onlays. Other treatments offer more extensive protection for teeth and include full dental crowns.
Teeth that are missing completely can be replaced in a few different ways that include bridges and dental implants. Traditionally, bridges are supported by existing teeth but if these teeth are missing completely then dental implants is a good option.
Dental implant treatment can be extremely versatile, replacing single or multiple teeth and it can also be used to secure loose dentures. Some cosmetic dental treatment plans may also suggest using orthodontics to straighten badly misaligned or overcrowded teeth.
Some braces are cosmetically oriented, thus, they will only correct the position of your front teeth. However, others can correct the way your teeth bite together which can be advantageous for your dental health.
This is because teeth that are overlapping or too tightly packed in, or which do not bite together correctly can be tricky to keep clean and will wear down unevenly. By straightening them up, you could benefit from a nicer looking smile as well. Healthier teeth will also benefit you as you will be less at risk of developing tooth decay or gum disease.
Learning Which Treatments Could Help You
As you can see, there are numerous treatments which could be useful in helping to improve your smile. One thing you will need to decide is your budget. Sometimes it is possible to make considerable changes to the appearance of your teeth quite economically. For example, this might be the case if you have old and stained fillings, or old crowns, or bridges that could do with replacing.
Your chosen dentist will work within your budget to help improve the look of your teeth. Even, if it’s just using a simple tooth whitening treatment to lift the overall color. This is a highly cost-effective way to improve the overall appearance and the results can be pretty dramatic. The next thing to think about is how you’d like to improve your smile.
When you see your dentist, they will want to discuss this with you to discover the kind of improvements you’d most like to see. This will allow them to recommend the most suitable treatments to meet your desires. It’s worth spending just a few minutes thinking about this.
For example, some people may have a gap between their front teeth which is called a diastema and which they absolutely hate. For others this may be something they wish to keep, feeling it’s part of their personality.
Choosing Your Cosmetic Dentist
You will need to think about your choice of dentist. Ideally, it’s best to pick a dental office that can offer all the treatments you may need. Whose staff are sufficiently trained and experienced to carry out cosmetic dental work. Check their website for qualifications and reviews and it can be helpful to look at their smile gallery.
This will be a collection of photographs of work carried out in this dental office and it will give you a good idea as to what can be achieved before your visit. If you have friends or family that have recently had any cosmetic dentistry, it’s worth asking for recommendations. Just bear in mind that your dental needs could be different from theirs.
When you visit the dental office just take a moment to consider whether you feel comfortable receiving treatment.
It’s important to have confidence in your dental team, even if you only want to make relatively minor changes to the appearance of your teeth. After examining your mouth, your chosen dentist should be able to clearly explain all possible treatments to you so you can make a fully informed decision about your dental care. If you don’t understand something, be sure to ask.
Combining Cosmetic Dental Treatments
It’s quite possible, that even if your budget is low your cosmetic dentist may suggest using two or more treatments to help achieve the desired effects. This isn’t to try and put up the price, as it could save you money and is likely to be the most conservative way to improve your smile.
They will be looking for ways to preserve your natural teeth while improving your smile. For example, using teeth whitening in combination with veneers, or with orthodontics, instead of using multiple veneers to cover up all your front teeth.
This type of approach helps to preserve your teeth in a way that is healthy and conservative. Another thing to bear in mind is that cosmetic dental work is best carried out in a healthy mouth. So, if you have any dental problems these will need to be treated. This will help ensure that you can enjoy the results of your new smile for as long as possible.
Once your cosmetic dental work is completed, don’t forget to keep up with regular checkups and cleanings. This will help to keep your teeth strong, healthy and looking fantastic.
Heavy periods are the most common cause of abnormal bleeding from the uterus and this is a condition called menorrhagia. A period is considered to be heavy if a tampon or pad needs changing every hour for several consecutive hours.
Other signs that you are having a heavy period include passing large blood clots, having a period that lasts longer than seven days, or needing to get up during the night to change a pad or tampon.
In particularly severe cases of menorrhagia, sleep can be interrupted, as can daily activities. Heavy and prolonged blood loss can also increase the risk of developing anemia. This can cause additional symptoms such as breathlessness and fatigue.
So, what causes menorrhagia?
Possible Causes of Menorrhagia
Heavy periods can be due to a number of different things that include:
• Having to take blood thinners or certain other medications
• Having suffered a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy
• Hormonal imbalances, particularly in progesterone and estrogens. This can occur in women approaching the menopause and in young girls who have only just begun to get their periods
• Fibroids, which can develop in the uterus and which typically occur during the childbearing years
• Polyps are small benign growths that develop on the lining of the uterus and which are a common cause of heavy menstrual bleeding
• Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the uterus that affects the fallopian tubes and other organs within the reproductive system
• Adenomyosis is more likely to occur in middle age women who have had children. It develops when glands in the lining of the uterus become embedded in its muscular wall
• Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer are rarer causes of menorrhagia
• Some medical conditions can cause heavy periods including thyroid, kidney or liver disease
• Sometimes IUD use can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding and when this is the case it may need to be removed
Heavy periods are often a common concern for premenopausal women. Most women will not experience the type of blood loss severe enough to be classified as menorrhagia. Women with this condition experience blood loss that is so heavy that they cannot carry on with normal everyday activities.
They will dread the arrival of their period. Women who are postmenopausal and who experience virginal bleeding should always seek the advice of their doctor or gynecologist.
What to Do If You Have Heavy Periods
If you have heavy periods or abnormal uterine bleeding, then it is important to see your gynecologist to find out the cause. Once this has been determined, they can provide suitable treatment. There are various different treatments that may be recommended. Hormonal imbalances can often be corrected through using hormonal therapy.
This will help to stabilize the lining of the uterus and regulate menstrual cycles. One possibility is to use an IUD that secretes hormones. There are various brands that can do this.
If you take blood thinners, there is a non-hormonal medication that can be prescribed that will help to promote blood clotting. Taking anti-inflammatory drugs can help to reduce pain and reduce the amount of blood loss.
Surgical Procedures to Help Heavy Periods
There are several surgical procedures that can be tried. One is to consider a hysterectomy where the uterus is removed, but this is obviously not suitable for women wishing for children. Also, a hysterectomy can be quite an extreme procedure.
For women who have completed their family or who don’t wish to have children, an alternative is to consider a procedure called endometrial ablation.
It is a minimally invasive procedure that is very safe. This can generally be carried out in an outpatient setting and takes just a few minutes to complete. It shouldn’t require a hospital stay and most women will be able to return to normal life the very next day. Other options include a D&C or dilation and curettage, where the cervix is dilated and the lining of the uterus is carefully scraped.
Yet, another treatment is to have a hysteroscopy. This is a procedure where a scope is inserted into the uterus through the cervix. Thus, allowing your gynecologist to evaluate the uterine lining and if necessary to remove any masses that may be causing bleeding.
If you suffer with heavy periods or vaginal bleeding, consult your gynecologist and see what can be done.
Any great dentist will realize losing even a single tooth can be extremely upsetting and will strive to help patients discover the best way to replace them, but not all will offer dental implants. Instead, you may be offered options such as partial dentures or dental bridges, which may be very suitable for you but it’s still worth enquiring about whether you could have dental implants.
Why Are Dental Implants the Best Long-Term Solution for Tooth Loss?
One of the major reasons why dental implants represent the best way of replacing teeth in the longer term is due to the way they can preserve your jawbone. They are the only solution can do this and it is important for your dental health.
Why Your Tooth Roots Matter
When you lose a tooth, your dentist will normally take out the tooth root as well as the crown of the tooth. In addition to anchoring the tooth in place, the tooth root provides valuable stimulation to the bone surrounding it.
Whenever you bite or chew food, some of the forces created are transmitted right through the tooth crown, down through the tooth root and out into the surrounding bone. This tells your body that it needs to renew old bone cells in your jawbone as they die off.
Without the tooth root, your body has no way of knowing that the bone cells in your jawbone are still required and as they die off they are no longer replaced. This results in the gradual loss of jawbone and it is detrimental to your dental health. When you lose bone in your jaw it can destabilize your natural teeth. Thus, resulting in these teeth beginning to drift out of position towards the empty gap and this, in turn, can affect your occlusion which is the way your teeth bite together.
If you have lost all your teeth, then things can become even more difficult. The bone that used to support your teeth will gradually lose width and height, affecting your overall facial dimensions which are why people without any teeth can often look as if their face is collapsing inwards. Also, if you choose to have full dentures then they will gradually fit less securely due to the reduced retention that comes with the reduction in your jawbone.
How Dental Implants Replace Your Tooth Roots
Dental implants are very much like an artificial tooth root, consisting of a small titanium post made of a medical grade alloy that is inserted into your jawbone. Dental implant posts are usually specially treated in some way to encourage new bone cells to grow on and around them. This is so that soon after surgery they become firmly anchored into your jawbone and act just like a natural tooth root. Once in place, your body will know that it must continue renewing old bone cells and bone loss is halted.
Enjoy Secure and Long-Lasting Replacement Teeth
Once your dental implants are in place, they can be used to support single crowns or bridges or full dentures. Crowns and bridges are permanently secured in place either by being screwed onto the dental implants or being cemented in position, whereas full dentures are removable for easy cleaning.
Dental implants are frequently an excellent choice even if you are only missing a single tooth. If you are missing multiple teeth in the same location of your mouth, an implant supported bridge can be a good option to consider. This is because the bridge will be supported by dental implants rather than your natural teeth which are frequently preferable if the teeth adjacent to the gap are healthy and strong and do not need to be covered up with crowns.
With a bridge supported by your natural teeth, your dentist will need to substantially grind down these teeth to support the bridge. This isn’t so bad if these teeth are decayed or need crowns, but it is undesirable if there is nothing wrong with these teeth as removing any structure from a tooth increases the risk it will become infected or decayed at a later date.
Your dental implant dentist will be able to discuss which solution will best meet your needs. One thing to bear in mind is that even if you have no natural teeth remaining, you don’t need to replace them with a removable implant supported denture if you’d prefer not to.
These days, it is possible to replace complete arches of teeth with an implant secured bridge. Although a little more expensive than an implant secured denture, this option does provide the ultimate in tooth replacement for people who have suffered complete tooth loss.
How Long Can Dental Implant Teeth Last?
Once your dental implants are in position and have fully integrated with your jawbone, they should last for many years to come. This is dependent on how well you look after your dental implants as they need to be kept meticulously clean to avoid the tissues around them from becoming infected which will greatly increase the chance of implant failure.
Dental implant treatment isn’t new, and many people have already enjoyed having implant teeth for decades. With the proper care, there is even the possibility that your implants could last for life. Your restorative dental implants which are your crowns, bridges or dentures should also last for many years but will need renewing periodically, just like any other dental restoration in your mouth.
Am I Suitable for Dental Implants?
This is a question best answered by your dental implant dentist who will need to fully evaluate your dental health and your medical health. In general, most people will be suitable for this treatment with a few exceptions. For example, if you smoke and don’t want to quit, or if you have a medical condition that affects your immune system and which could slow down healing after implant surgery, it’s possible you may need to consider another way to replace your teeth.
When properly planned, implant surgery is enormously successful and most dental implant dentists have success rates of 95% or higher, but this is also due to careful patient screening prior to implant surgery. Your dentist can discuss all the pros and cons of this treatment and the possible risks based on your dental and medical history. This will allow you to make a fully informed decision as to whether this treatment is the right option for you.
Pregnant women often experience a certain level of nausea and vomiting known as morning sickness. In general, this condition is not harmful and tends to resolve within the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. However, sometimes this morning sickness can be quite disturbing making the pregnancy unbearable.
Morning sickness and hyperemesis gravidarum are different medical conditions which have different side effects and possible complications for the pregnant women. It is very important to distinguish morning sickness and hyperemesis gravidarum.
While morning sickness is usually harmless for the pregnant women, hyperemesis gravidarum can be quite difficult leading to possible side effects and complications which can be even life – threatening for the developing fetus and even for the expecting mother.
What is hyperemesis gravidarum?Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition affecting pregnant women, usually in the first few weeks of pregnancy. This condition is characterized by weight loss and electrolyte disturbance due to severe nausea and vomiting.
About 80% of pregnant women experience some type of morning sickness during their pregnancy and especially during the first trimester. However, in severe cases when morning sickness gets extreme, hyperemesis gravidarum develops.
Severe nausea is thought to result from increased levels of hormones, especially, the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG is a hormone normally created during pregnancy from the placenta. Its levels tend to increase throughout the pregnancy.
Signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarumCommon signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum are
• Severe nausea,
• Extreme fatigue,
• Food aversion,
• Weight loss,
• Decreased urination,
• Low blood pressure,
• Increased heart rate,
• Depression, etc.
When the signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum become noticeable?Hyperemesis gravidarum frequently starts to become noticeable between the fourth and sixth week of pregnancy. Nonetheless, it is believed that the peak of nausea and frequent vomiting reaches between the ninth and thirteenth week of pregnancy.
In about 20% of all cases with hyperemesis gravidarum, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte disturbance occur throughout the pregnancy often requiring hospital treatment. Most of the pregnant women experience some relief between the fourteenth and twentieth week of pregnancy.
Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum include
• Hyperemesis gravidarum in a previous pregnancy,
• Being overweight,
• Being pregnant with twins or more fetuses,
• Being pregnant for the first time,
• Trophoblastic disease, etc.
Hyperemesis gravidarum can’t be prevented. However, this condition can be successfully managed, making the pregnancy an enjoyable period for the future mother.
How is hyperemesis gravidarum diagnosed?A complete medical history and physical examination are necessary when diagnosing hyperemesis gravidarum. Complete blood examinations, as well as, urinalysis are necessary to check for any signs of dehydration.
Ultrasound examinations are also important to check the progress of the pregnancy, the development of the fetus, as well as to discover the presence of a twin pregnancy or a development of a trophoblastic disease.
How is hyperemesis gravidarum treated?In mild to moderate cases bed rest followed by elimination of stress, good hydration, and a rich diet help relieve the signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum. You should try drinking constantly and eating smaller meals every couple of hours. Eating dry foods can also help a lot when dealing with hyperemesis gravidarum.
However, in severe cases of hyperemesis gravidarum intrahospital treatment is required. In a hospital, intravenous fluids are given in order to restore the hydration and provide a pregnant woman with all the necessary nutrients, vitamins and electrolytes very important for your own health and the health of your growing fetus inside of you.
In severe cases when even intravenous fluids don’t provide a relief of the signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum, tube feeding through nasogastric tubes or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is required.
A nasogastric tube, consist in providing and restoring necessary nutrients, vitamins, and electrolytes through a tube which passes from the nose to the stomach. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a surgical procedure which consists in restoring necessary nutrients, vitamins, and electrolytes through a tube directly inserted through the abdomen to the stomach.
Certain medications such as antireflux medications, metoclopramide or antihistamines are also recommended for the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.
Hyperemesis gravidarum resolves after giving birth. However, it has been estimated that the recovery period after childbirth is longer for those diagnosed with hyperemesis gravidarum during their pregnancy.
Paying attention to the emotional stress is also necessary, as hyperemesis gravidarum can interfere with your daily routine activities and life.
The phrase looking ‘long in the tooth’ is often used to describe someone who is a little older as gum recession can occur with advancing age. This doesn’t mean it has to happen, as receding gums is often a sign of gum disease.
How Does Gum Disease Cause Gum Recession?
Gum disease is a common condition caused by a bacterial infection and normally occurs as a result of poor oral hygiene. Everyday plaque builds up over your teeth and gums and this is a sticky biofilm that contains bacteria. If you have a good oral hygiene routine, much of this plaque will be removed during regular brushing and flossing. If it remains then the bacteria within plaque will soon begin to infect your gums.
As the gums become infected, they also become inflamed as the body tries to fight the bacteria. Unfortunately, the result of this inflammation is gum recession, and as the gums begin to pull away from the teeth. This often creates deep pockets in between the tooth and the gum tissue. These are called gum pockets or periodontal pockets and can create substantial problems.
Firstly, they provide the ideal breeding ground for even more bacteria to thrive. Secondly, these gum pockets can get pretty deep so it can get tricky to clean with an ordinary toothbrush. This allows the infection to build up so the gum pockets can become even deeper. Eventually, this affects the bone surrounding teeth and can lead to tooth loss.
Treating Receding Gums
If your gums have receded then don’t despair as there are lots of different treatments that can help. The best thing to do is to visit a periodontist like a specialist for a comprehensive periodontal evaluation. This will determine the extent of the disease and the damage it has caused.
What Happens during a Periodontal Evaluation?
A comprehensive periodontal evaluation is a way for a periodontist to fully assess the health of your gums. During this assessment, a periodontist will look at your teeth, your gums, your jaws and the way your teeth bite together. He will also assess your level of plaque. The level of infection within your gums can be assessed by gently probing them with an instrument called a periodontal probe.
This measures the depth of the periodontal pockets and is a good indication of how far the disease has progressed. Normal healthy gums only have a depth of between 1 mm and 3 mm, depths of this level could indicate a problem. The periodontist may wish to take x-rays or will carry out other diagnostic tests to determine the extent of the infection. Also to help find whether it has affected other structures surrounding your teeth, including ligaments and bone.
Planing Your Treatment
Using this information, a periodontist can determine the best course of treatment. The main priority will be to reduce the bacterial infection in your gums. This can be done in a number of different ways. The most straightforward treatment is called scaling and root planing. This is one way of deep cleaning badly infected gums.
Scaling and Root Planing
This procedure can be highly effective and may be recommended as an ongoing treatment. Although it’s likely to be combined with other treatments in order to get a severe infection under control. The easiest way to imagine scaling and root planning is being a deep cleaning treatment for your gums. Although it is quite similar to a normal hygiene treatment, where your teeth are scaled and polished, scaling and planing take things much further.
By this stage, it is likely that gum recession will have caused your tooth roots to become exposed. The exposed roots are also scaled before being smoothed or planed. The idea is to remove as much of the infection as possible. It’s also to make it harder for bacteria to recognize the periodontal pockets.
After this treatment, you will need to pay more attention to your oral hygiene as this will help your gums to heal. This is so they can begin to fit more tightly around your teeth, reducing the depth of the periodontal pockets.
Another way to treat badly infected gums is to use laser dentistry. This is a highly effective way of removing bacteria and can sterilize the areas treated by scaling and root planing. A dental laser is also a very gentle and extremely precise way of removing tissues that are too badly damaged to heal. Afterward, the gum tissues should be able to heal more easily. Especially as the gum pockets shrink, enabling the gums to fit more tightly around the teeth.
Periodontal Pocket Reduction
This procedure may be used to treat deep pockets that cannot easily be cleaned at home. During this treatment, your gum tissue will be folded back which will allow a periodontist greater access right into the gum pockets. They can then concentrate on removing the bacterial infection and any badly damaged tissues that will not be able to heal. Any areas of bone that have been damaged by bacteria can be smoothed which makes it easier for the gum tissue to reattach itself to the healthy bone.
Repairing Receding Gums
Even though scaling and root planing, as well as other gum treatments, can be highly effective in reducing infection, the newly healed gums may still have badly receded. This still leaves you looking long in the tooth. This is where gum grafting could be useful and is a highly specialized technique to replace lost gum tissue. To do this, gum tissue may be taken from elsewhere in your mouth.
It’s quite common for gum tissue to be taken from the roof of your mouth and to be grafted into place. Another technique involves cutting away gum tissue from nearby the affected area and pulling it into a position. This is so that it still remains attached at one end, but can be stitched into place.
The pedicle graft, this technique is only suitable for people who have quite a bit of gum tissue available in the area requiring treatment. The advantage of opting for gum grafting is that it will help to protect exposed tooth roots. Thus creating a more aesthetically, pleasing appearance.
Once you have had severe gum disease it’s important to be vigilant and to keep up with any ongoing periodontal treatments recommended by your periodontist. Often advanced gum disease is chronic and ongoing treatment will help control the disease, hopefully preventing any further infection.